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Martin Luther King Jr. Day in the United States

Martin Luther King Day is a federal holiday held on the third Monday of January. It celebrates the life and achievements of Martin Luther King Jr., an influential American civil rights leader. He is most well-known for his campaigns to end racial segregation on public transport and for racial equality in the United States.

Is Martin Luther King Jr. Day a Public Holiday?

Martin Luther King Jr. Day is a public holiday. It is a day off for the general population, and schools and most businesses are closed.

"The Stone Of Hope" memorial by master sculptor Lei Yixin was opened to the public in West Potomac Park, Washington DC, on August 22, 2011.

©iStockphoto.com/Camrocker

What Do People Do?

Martin Luther King Day is a relatively new federal holiday and there are few long standing traditions. It is seen as a day to promote equal rights for all Americans, regardless of their background. Some educational establishments mark the day by teaching their pupils or students about the work of Martin Luther King and the struggle against racial segregation and racism. In recent years, federal legislation has encouraged Americans to give some of their time on this day as volunteers in citizen action groups.

Martin Luther King Day, also known as Martin Luther King’s birthday and Martin Luther King Jr Day, is combined with other days in different states. For example, it is combined with Civil Rights Day in Arizona and New Hampshire, while it is observed together with Human Rights Day in Idaho. It is also a day that is combined with Robert E. Lee’s birthday in some states. The day is known as Wyoming Equality Day in the state of Wyoming.

Public Life

Martin Luther King Day is a federal holiday, but has slightly different names in some states. Non-essential Government departments are closed, as are many corporations. Some schools and colleges close but others stay open and teach their students about the life and work of Martin Luther King.

Small companies, such as grocery stores and restaurants tend to be open, although a growing number are choosing to close on this day. Some compensate by opening on Washington's Birthday instead. Recent federal legislation encourages Americans to give some of their time on Martin Luther King Day as volunteers in citizen action groups. Public transit systems may or may not operate on their regular schedule.

Background

Martin Luther King was an important civil rights activist. He was a leader in the movement to end racial segregation in the United States. His most famous address was the "I Have A Dream" speech. He was an advocate of non-violent protest and became the youngest man to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. He was assassinated in 1968.

In 1968, shortly after Martin Luther King died, a campaign was started for his birthday to become a holiday to honor him. After the first bill was introduced, trade unions lead the campaign for the federal holiday. It was endorsed in 1976. Following support from the musician Stevie Wonder with his single "Happy Birthday" and a petition with six million signatures, the bill became law in 1983. Martin Luther King Day was first observed in 1986, although it was not observed in all states until the year 2000. In 1990, the Wyoming legislature designated Martin Luther King Jr/Wyoming Equality Day as a legal holiday.

Martin Luther King Jr. Day Observances

YearWeekdayDateNameHoliday TypeArea
2010MonJan 18Martin Luther King Jr. DayFederal Holiday 
2011MonJan 17Martin Luther King Jr. DayFederal Holiday 
2012MonJan 16Martin Luther King Jr. DayFederal Holiday 
2013MonJan 21Martin Luther King Jr. DayFederal Holiday 
2014MonJan 20Martin Luther King Jr. DayFederal Holiday 
2015MonJan 19Martin Luther King Jr. DayFederal Holiday 
2016MonJan 18Martin Luther King Jr. DayFederal Holiday 
2017MonJan 16Martin Luther King Jr. DayFederal Holiday 
2018MonJan 15Martin Luther King Jr. DayFederal Holiday 
2019MonJan 21Martin Luther King Jr. DayFederal Holiday 
2020MonJan 20Martin Luther King Jr. DayFederal Holiday 

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