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The Solar Hijri Calendar

Officially used in Iran and Afghanistan, the Solar Hijri calendar is one of the world's most accurate calendar systems. It is also known as Persian Calendar, Iranian Calendar, and SH Calendar.

Illustration image

Astronomer Omar Khayyam's tomb.

Omar Khayyam's tomb in Nishapur, Iran. The astronomer developed the earliest precursor to the modern Iranian Solar Hijri calendar.

©bigstockphoto.com/rasoul ali

The Solar Hijri calendar is not to be confused with the Hijri calendar used in many Muslim countries and by Muslims around the world.

What's the difference?

Tied to the Equinox

The Solar Hijri calendar is a solar calendar, meaning that its time reckoning is based on the Earth's movements around the Sun.

Unlike the Gregorian calendar, which follows a set of predetermined rules to stay in sync with the solar year, the Solar Hijri calendar is based on astronomical observations. The year begins at midnight closest to the vernal equinox in Iran – specifically at the Iran Standard Time meridian at longitude 52.5° east, which runs about 250 miles (400 km) east of Tehran. The first day of the new year is called Nowruz, and it is celebrated around the world by Iranian people.

Tying the Solar Hijri calendar so closely to the astronomical seasons makes it much more accurate than the Gregorian calendar, which, even in its modern form, deviates from the solar year by 1 day in 3236 years.

How accurate are different calendar systems?

Months in the Persian Calendar
Month NamesDays
Farvardin [fæɾvæɾˈdiːn]31
Ordibehesht [oɾdiːbeˈheʃt]31
Khordad [xoɾˈdɒːd]31
Tir [tiːɾ]31
Mordad [moɾˈdɒːd]31
Shahrivar [ʃæhɾiːˈvæɾ]31
Mehr [mehɾ]30
Aban [ɒːˈbɒːn]30
Azar [ɒːˈzæɾ]30
Dey [dei̯]30
Bahman [bæhˈmæn]30
Esfand [esˈfænd]29/30

Calendar Structure

A year in the Solar Hijri calendar is divided into 12 months of varying lengths. The first 6 months have 31 days, and months 7 through 11 have 30 days. The last month, Esfand, has 29 days in a common year and 30 days in a leap year.

Leap years in the Persian calendar

When Was Year 1?

The Solar Hijri year count starts with the Islamic prophet Mohammed's migration (Hegira or Hijrah) to Medina in 622 CE. Although the Solar Hijri calendar shares this start date with the Islamic calendar (Hijri calendar), the calendar systems are not related otherwise.

The Hijri calendar is a lunar calendar. Because of this, the year counts between the Solar Hijri calendar and the Hijri calendar differ substantially. For example, January 1, 2016 fell into year 1394 in the Solar Hijri calendar, which corresponds to year 1437 in the Hijri calendar.

Leap Year Rules

Like in the Gregorian calendar, a common year in the Solar Hijri calendar has 365 days while a leap year has 366 days. However, because the Solar Hijri calendar is an observational calendar, there are no mathematical rules to determine leap years. Instead, it is the number of days between two vernal equinoxes that determines if Esfand has 29 or 30 days.

Common years in the Gregorian calendar

Leap years in the Gregorian calendar

Rule-Based Version

A number of complex mathematical rules have been suggested to determine the distribution of leap years in the Solar Hijri calendar. One of them achieves a degree of accuracy very similar to that of the observational version, requiring about 110,000 years to accumulate an error of 1 day.

History and Background

The Solar Hijri calendar has been Iran's official calendar since 1925. In Afghanistan, it was introduced in 1957.

The earliest forms of Iranian time reckoning date back as far as the second millennium BCE. A number of different calendar systems were used in Persia through the centuries, including the Zoroastrian calendar and the Islamic calendar. The first version of the modern Solar Hijri calendar, the Jalali calendar, was developed in the 11th century by a group of astronomers including the Persian scientist Omar Khayyam.

Calendar for Iran (Gregorian)

Calendar for Afghanistan (Gregorian)

The Persian Calendar
Used inIran, Afghanistan
Calendar typeSolar
Accuracy
(Rule-based version)
1 day in 110,000 years
Number of daysCommon year: 365
Leap year: 366
Number of months12
Correction mechanismNone (observational)
Year 1622 CE (Common Era)

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Calendar Types

  1. Gregorian Calendar
  2. Julian Calendar
  3. Revised Julian Calendar
  4. Islamic Calendar
  5. Jewish Calendar
  6. Persian Calendar
  7. Mayan Calendar
  8. Chinese Calendar
  9. Roman Calendar
  10. Ethiopian Calendar
  11. Switch from Julian to Gregorian
  12. Is There a Perfect Calendar?
  13. What Do CE and BCE Mean?

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Alternative Leap Years

  1. Bahá'í Calendar Leap Year
  2. Chinese Calendar Leap Year
  3. Ethiopian Calendar Leap Year
  4. Hindu Calendar Leap Year
  5. Persian Calendar Leap Year
  6. Islamic Calendar Leap Year
  7. Jewish Calendar Leap Year

Leap Years in Other Calendars


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