What Happened On This Day – January 9
2005 The second Sudanese War ends
As an outcome, Southern Sudan is granted autonomy; in 2011, South Sudan becomes an independent nation.
1916 The Battle of Gallipoli ends
The Gallipoli Campaign during World War I ended with the victory of the Ottoman Empire.
1861 The first shots of the American Civil War are fired
The steamer, Star of the West, was fired upon by the Confederates as it attempted to enter Charleston Harbor
1768 Philip Astley opens the world's first modern circus
The British equestrian, who is considered the father of modern circus, opened a riding school in London where he also performed tricks for an audience in the afternoons.
1431 The trial against Joan of Arc begins
She was executed on May 30, 1431, exonerated in 1456, and canonized in 1920 by Pope Benedict XV.
Births On This Day,
1944 Jimmy Page
English guitarist, songwriter, producer
1941 Joan Baez
American singer-songwriter, activist
1922 Ahmed Sékou Touré
Guinean politician, 1st President of Guinea
1913 Richard Nixon
American politician, 37th President of the United States
1890 Kurt Tucholsky
Deaths On This Day,
2014 Amiri Baraka
American poet, actor, activist
1908 Wilhelm Busch
German poet, painter, illustrator
1908 Abraham Goldfaden
Russian actor, playwright, author
1873 Napoleon III
French politician, 1st President of France
1324 Marco Polo